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2019-09-12 11:00:42

How are magnets made?

Ferromagnetic materials, such as iron, cobalt, nickel or ferrite, are different. The electron spins in them can be arranged spontaneously in a small range to form a spontaneous magnetization region, which is called magnetic domain. After magnetization of ferromagnetic materials, the internal magnetic domains are arranged in a neat and uniform manner, which makes the magnetism stronger and makes the magnet become a magnet. The magnet absorption process is the magnetization process of the iron block. The magnetized iron block and the magnet have attraction between different polarities, and the iron block is firmly "sticking" with the magnet.


Natural magnets are ferric oxide, while artificial magnets are usually steel. After magnetization, steel will always retain the natural permanent magnet of magnetic general meaning, not only ferrite (Fe3O4), but also various permanent magnet materials such as Fe-Co-Ni alloy, Fe-RE alloy, such as Al-Ni-Co, Sm-Co, Nd-Fe-B, which are also very common and have very strong magnetism. These materials can be magnetized by magnetic field constant magnetic field. It is magnetized and does not disappear after magnetization. The composition of man-made magnets depends on the magnetization properties of various metals and needs. A magnet approaches (touches) a magnetic substance, which is induced to form an anonymous pole near one end and a homonymous pole at the other end.


Classification of Magnets


A. Temporary (soft) magnets

Significance: Magnetism is short, and disappears when the magnet is removed.

B. Example: nails, wrought iron


B. Permanent (Hard) Magnets

Significance: After magnetization, it can retain magnetism for a long time. B. Example: steel nails


According to the principle of electromagnetic induction, a strong current can produce a strong magnetic field, which can magnetize ferromagnetic materials. Due to the different magnetization characteristics of different materials, some materials are easy to magnetize, and are not easy to lose magnetism (loss of magnetism), so they can retain magnetism for a long time. Magnetizing this material produces magnets. The hard magnet is magnetized by a magnetizer.


According to the principle of electromagnetic induction, electric current can produce magnetic field. Magnetizing hard magnetic material by strong magnetic field is generally called magnetic material of magnet. In fact, there are several different things: the most common magnet, such as the magnet used in general loudspeaker, is ferric oxide magnet. They are made of scales (flaky iron oxides) which fall off the surface of billet during hot rolling in iron and steel works. After impurity removal, crushing and adding a small amount of other substances, they are pressed into steel moulds and then sintered in reductive electric furnace (through hydrogen), so that some oxides are reduced to ferrite, cooled and then cooled. Produced by magnetizing in an exciter.


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